No matter what kind of diabetes you have, measure your blood glucose and urine ketones more often than usual. If you have type 1 diabetes, you may need to measure blood glucose and urine ketones every four hours. Measuring ketones is very important because these waste products are more likely to build up when you are sick and lead to ketoacidosis.
If you have type 2 diabetes, checking blood glucose four times a day may be enough. You might only need to measure ketones if your blood glucose is higher than 300. If you do not have a meter, talk to your diabetes educator about getting one.
When sick, you will still need to continue medications for your diabetes. Even if you are throwing up, don’t stop your medications. You need them because your body makes extra glucose (sugar) when you are sick.
If you have type 1 diabetes, you may have to take extra insulin to bring down the higher blood glucose levels. If you have type 2 diabetes, you may be able to take your pills, or you may need to use insulin for a short time. In either case, work with your doctor to develop your sick-day plan.
Medications to Watch Out For
You may want to take extra medications when you are sick. For example, if you have a cold, you may want to take a cough medicine.
Always check the label of over-the-counter medicines before you buy them to see if they have sugar. Small doses of medicines with sugar are usually okay. But to be on the safe side, ask the pharmacist or your team about sugar-free medicines.
Many medications you take for short-term illnesses can affect your blood glucose levels, even if they don’t contain sugar. For example, aspirin in large doses can lower blood glucose levels. Some antibiotics lower blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes who take diabetes pills. Decongestants and some products for treating colds raise blood glucose levels.
If you must go to the emergency room or see a different doctor than usual, be sure to say you have diabetes, or have your identification bracelet in plain view. List all the medications that you are taking.
Your blood glucose level can also be affected by medications you take for chronic or long-term conditions.